Multiculturalism, Psychogeography, and Brian Doyle’s <em>Angel Square</em>: “A Dangerous Square to Cross”

  • Sharon Smulders
Keywords: multiculturalism, psychogeography, Canadian identity, place, anti-Semitism


During the 1980s, Canada entrenched within legislation an understanding of multiculturalism as a core constituent of national identity in accordance with the principles of diversity and equality. This paper explores how Brian Doyle problematizes the notion of multiculturalism in his 1984 novel Angel Square by exploring the hostility and violence inherent in children’s play. In so doing, it focuses on Doyle’s eleven-year-old protagonist, Tommy, who confronts the evils of post-war anti-Semitism while working toward an ecumenical vision of peace despite religious, cultural, and linguistic differences.


DOI: 10.1353/jeu.2016.0002

Author Biography

Sharon Smulders

Sharon Smulders teaches in the Department of English, Languages, and Cultures at Mount Royal University in Calgary, Alberta. She has written on issues of race and representation in the work of Laura Ingalls Wilder and Beatrice Culleton Mosionier. Most recently, she published an article entitled “‘Information and Inspiration’: Wangari Maathai, the Green Belt Movement and Children’s Eco-literature” in International Research in Children’s Literature.

How to Cite
Smulders, S. (2016). Multiculturalism, Psychogeography, and Brian Doyle’s <em>Angel Square</em&gt;: “A Dangerous Square to Cross”. Jeunesse: Young People, Texts, Cultures, 8(1). Retrieved from
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